After completing this session, you will be able to:
- explain why training and development is necessary.
- differentiate between training and development.
- describe different approaches to employee training and professional development.
- explain the types of training delivery methods.
serve the objectives of continuously upgrading the competencies of employees to be able to perform current roles and future roles effectively. This in turn, help the organization to achieve it’s goals in a ever changing and competitive environment.
A systematic and structured approach to training and development is necessary to effectively develop employees. This topic should help students to get an overview of training and development function and appreciate various activities and processes followed in organizations to carry out employee training and development.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT
- Training programs are organized by the organization to develop employees’ knowledge and skills as per their job requirements. On the other side, development is not directly related to job requirement, rather it aims at the generic development of the individual employees for the long run.
- Training is the act of learning basic skills and knowledge necessary for a particular job or a group of jobs. Development, on the other hand, means growth of the individual in all respects. An organization works for the development of its executives in order to enable them to gain advanced knowledge and competence.
SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT
It involves understanding and assessing current level of in terms it’s effectiveness and taking suitable actions to enhance training effectiveness. Some of the aspects that need to be seen and assessed are – level of training and development infrastructure and facilities, leadership involvement and commitment to employee training, and training and development processes.
There are broadly following five key steps and processes which are critical to training effectiveness.
- Identifying training needs
- Making training plan
- Designing training programs
- Implementing training plan, conducting training programs
- Measuring effectiveness of training
IDENTIFYING TRAINING NEEDS:
To put things in simple manner, there are following two practical steps for identifying training needs
- Understand organizational requirements, Role requirements, and individual employee requirements. This is known as – organizational analysis, role analysis, and individual analysis respectively.
- Get views and feedback from following sources through – written questionnaire, FGD, Interviews
Self (employee herself/himself)
Managers of other departments
Senior leaders and top management
External stake holders & Experts
Other secondary data from
360 degree feedback conducted by organization
Assessment & Development Center
ADULT LEARNING PROCESS AND ADULT LEARNING STYLES
It is important to understand as how adult learns. Part of this understanding is adult learning styles.
Learning styles are preferred ways adults learn.
FEELERS: Feelers are very people oriented. They are expressive and focus on feelings and emotions. They enjoy affective learning and gravitate towards learning experiences to explore people’s attitude and emotions. Feelers thrive in an open, unstructured learning environment and appreciate the opportunity to work in groups and like activities in which they can share opinions and experiences.
OBSERVERS : Observers like to watch and listen. They tend to be reserved and quiet and will take their time before acting or participating in class. When they do decide to offer an opinion or answer a question, they are generally right on target. They enjoy learning and experiences that allow them to consider various ideas and opinions, and they seems to thrive on learning through discovery.
THINKER: Thinkers rely on logic and reason. They like the opportunity to share ideas and concept. They prefer activities that require them to analyze and evaluate. They will question the rationale behind activities and will challenges statement that they perceive to be general or without substance. The thinkers prefer to work independently and question the relevance of role plays and simulations.
DOERS: Doers like to be actively involved in the learning process. They will take charge in group activities and tend to dominate discussions. They like opportunities to practice what they learned, and they are particularly interested in knowing how they are going to apply what they learn in the real world. They like information presented clearly and concisely and became impatient with drawn-out discussion.
HOW ADULT LEARN
Adult learner is self directed. Adult learners want to take responsibility for their own lives, including the , implementing, and evaluating of their learning activities.
Experience of the adult learner play a big role for adult learner as what and how he is going to learn.
Adults are ready to learn when they perceive a need to know or do something in order to perform more effectively in some aspects of their lives.
Adult learners want the learning experience to be practical and realistic, problem cantered rather than subject cantered.
Adults want immediate, real world applications. They want the skills and knowledge to help them solve problems or complete tasks.
Adults are motivated to learn because of internal factors such as self-esteem, desire for recognition, natural curiosity, innate love of learning, or opportunity to self-actualize.
Adults learn by following different learning styles, not one specific learning style.
Various training methods that are usually used in a training program to cater to different learning styles of the participants are as under;
Role playing – Acting out real life situations in a protected, low risk environment.
Game – An activity governed by rules entailing a competitive situation.
– Activity designed to reflect reality.
Observations – Watching others without directly participating.
Instruments – Paper pencil device used to gather information.
Mental imagery – Visualize situations, mentally rehearse putting skills into action.
Writing tasks – Worksheets in conjunction with materials, list and evaluate information.
Lecture – Short, structured, one way communication from trainer to participants.
Small Group Discussion – Small groups formed from larger group. Composed of five to seven individuals, assigned to discuss a certain topic within certain time limit.
Case study – Written description of a problem os situation trainees might be faced with on the job. Working in small groups, trainees read and discuss the case to determine the pertinent facts, identify problem, suggest alternative solutions, and agree on final solution.
Task Exercise or Activity – Participants are divided into small groups of five to seven and work on a specific activity or task, often present results to the total group.
ON THE JOB DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES AND OOF THE JOB DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES
Various on the job development opportunities and off the job development opportunities that are used in organizations to develop employees are as under
On the job development opportunities
- Structured Feedback
- New Projects
- Special Assignments
- Cross functional projects
- by a seniors
- Observing seniors
- Attending meetings
- Making Presentations on behalf of others
OFF THE JOB DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES
- Attending workshops/ training programmes
- Distance Learning Courses
- Joining Professional bodies
- Watching T.V.
MEASURING TRAINING EFFECCTIVENESS
After training has been carried out, its effectiveness is measured at four levels.
- Reaction level
- Result or output
Activities that provide learning situations in which an employee acquires additional knowledge or skills to increase job performance.
A comparison of actual performance with expected performance to assess an employee’s contributions to the organization.
Creating an outline to guide operations in a direction of a mission, vision, and values
A scaled-down version or mock-up of equipment, processes, or a work environment.
Involves a systematic movement of employees from job to job within an organization.
The practice of expanding job content through depth to create more opportunities for satisfaction
A form of on-the-job training in which a senior manager or other experienced employee provides job- and career-related information to a mentee.